What is an endophyte?

An endophyte is a fungus found naturally in many grass species, including ryegrass. It provides the plant with protection from insects, and in return the plant provides the endophyte with a place to live and reproduce.

How an endophyte protects your pasture

AR37 endophyte takes ryegrass pasture persistence and protection to a premium level.

Pests controlled: Argentine Stem Weevil, Pasture Mealy Bug, Adult Black Beetle and Root Aphid.

Available in: Lush tetraploid Italian ryegrass, Base tetraploid perennial ryegrass, Platform diploid perennial ryegrass# and Expo diploid perennial ryegrass.

#Platform has been bred, selected and successfully tested as a perennial and will function as a perennial. ryegrass. Due to small number of tip awns, Platform is certified as Lolium boucheanum. 

AR37 Endophyte

Benefits of ryegrass with AR37 endophyte

  • Provides the best balance of pasture production and persistence 
  • Higher tiller density over time
  • Assists with post-drought recovery and improves agronomic performance
  • Provides stronger control of more insect pests compared to ryegrass cultivars containing AR1 or standard endophyte
  • May produce greater carcass weight per hectare compared to ryegrass cultivars containing standard endophyte 
  • Helps to provide a greater return on investment 
  • Increased total dry matter production compared to ryegrass cultivars containing AR1 or nil endophyte
  • Has no Ergovaline so may increase milk production compared to endophytes containing high Ergovaline levels
  • Increased sheep performance compared to ryegrass cultivars containing standard endophyte 
  • Low incidence of dags in sheep (similar to that of cultivars containing AR1 endophyte)

Limitations of ryegrass with AR37 endophytes

  • AR37 varieties should not be used or fed to any other classes of stock other than sheep, beef and dairy (eg. grazing horses/monogastrics)
  • For important information relating to animal health and performance, click here or refer to pages 18-19 of our 2022 Product guide. 

Endo5 has good pest control and no known risk of ryegrass staggers

Pests controlled: Black Beetle, Argentine Stem Weevil, Root Aphid (moderate control) and Pasture Mealy Bug. (Comparatively, AR37 has demonstrated stronger protection from pests and insects).

Available in: Reward tetraploid perennial ryegrass.

AR37 Endophyte

Benefits of ryegrass with Endo5 endophyte

  • Contains no Lolitrem B, the main cause of ryegrass staggers
  • Produces less Ergovaline for increased milk production compared to endophytes containing high levels of Ergovaline (Standard Endophyte)
  • Increased persistence compared to AR1 endophyte
  • Pest and insect protection better than AR1

Limitations of ryegrass with Endo5 endophyte

  • ‚Äč May produce lower animal performance levels over summer/autumn compared to ryegrass cultivars containing AR1 or nil endophyte 

AR1 is a novel endophyte option with high animal performance and no known animal health issues

Pests controlled: Argentine Stem Weevil and Pasture Mealy Bug.

Available with: Platform diploid perennial ryegrass.

AR37 Endophyte

Benefits of ryegrass with AR1 endophyte

  • Delivers excellent animal performance
  • Provides a moderate range of insect protection
  • Increase in milk production compared to ryegrass cultivars containing standard endophyte (where ryegrass persists) 

Limitations of ryegrass with AR1 endophyte

  • Has demonstrated poorer persistence in areas with major insect pest pressure from Black Beetle and Root Aphid
  • AR1 can be overgrazed, resulting in more stress on the plant which may affect long term pasture persistence 

MaxP® endophyte is a premium tall fescue protection with no known animal health impacts for beef, sheep and dairy.

Pests controlled: African Black Beetle, Agrentine Stem Weevil, Root Aphid and limited control of Field Cricket

Available in: Quantum II summer-active tall fescue and Quantica summer-active tall fescue.

AR37 Endophyte

Benefits of tall fescue with MaxP endophyte

  • An endophyte that improves the ability of tall fescue pastures to handle pest attack and possibly moisture stress.
  • Aids persistence and performance of tall fescue
  • No known adverse animal health effects in beef, sheep and dairy

AR37, MaxP, Endo5 and AR1 endophytes

It is important to choose the right endophyte for your operation. Some endophyte strains provide better insect protection but there may also be some impact on animal health. If you need a little extra know how, we are just a phone call away 1800 619 910.

Standard endophyte (SE)

Limitations of grass with Standard endophyte

  • Contains Lolitrem B, the main cause of ryegrass staggers which can cause significant stock losses in some seasons
  • Milk production may be lower in sheep, weight of lambs may be lower, and adult sheep consistently have lower bodyweight when grazing toxic pastures even when clinical staggers is not apparent
  • Contains high levels of Ergovaline, which causes subclinical heat stress and is linked to other negative animal side effects

Other effects

  • Scours/dags
  • Affects weight gain
  • Milk production
  • Water intake
  • General “ill thrift”
  • Sub clinical heat stress

The Neotyphodium endophytes infecting these grasses are not known to be transferred with pollen or by physical contact (Siegel et al., 1984).

David E. Hume and David J. Barker 2005 GROWTH AND MANAGEMENT OF ENDOPHYTIC GRASSES IN PASTORAL AGRICULTURE. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses. Eds. CA Roberts, CP West, DE Spiers 201-226 Iowa, IA: Blackwell Publishing

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